On-line botany

Plant anomalies

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Floras on the internet!


In old-fashion paper form there are a lot of floras you can get either in a new state or second-hand. When you are on the look for a flora that you can use in a certain area, we recommend to obtain a copy of the Guide to standard floras of the world, written by D.G. Frodin. This book contains an overview of floras sorted by land or by region. Lets say you are planning a botanical journey to Baluchistan, but you don't know anything about the wild flowers of that region. In the work of Frodin you can easily find that there actually is a "Working list of the flowering plants of Baluchistan", published in 1909 by the Baluchistan Forestry Department. How to get your hands on that list is a problem Frodin wil not be able to help you with, but then there is... the internet!


The lists are still under construction and any adjustments, adds and remarks are welcome (use our contact form). The primary area of interest is Europe. For on-line floras of areas outside Europe, go to First we give a short list of the 'main' sites in Europe, then a longer one (see below) per country or larger island.


Quick jump to:

-     Main sites on European countries

-     Garden plants

-     Outside Europe

-     European countries in detail (incl. Maraconesian area, Açores):

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z



Europe (incl. Maraconesian area, Açores)


Europe in general (downloadable old books, New York Botanical Garden) (Plant database of Europe and the Mediterranean) (Interactive flora of NW Europe, in English and Dutch) (Flora of Sweden (in Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, German and Finnish) Flora of the British Isles (in English) (Flora of Germany, in German) (Flora of France, in French) (Flora of the Alpes, in French) (Nationales Daten- und Informationszentrum zur Schweizer Flora, in German, French and Italian) (Flora of Spain, Portugal, the Canary Islands, Madeira and the Azores, in Spanish) (Flora of Romania, in Romanian) (Endemics per country, also animals)


Açores (A Field Guide) (Flora dos Açores) (La flora endemica) (abstract Non-indigenous Flora of the Açores Archipelago) (Biodiversidade dos Açores, Plantas Vasculares)


Austria (Naturhistorische Museum Wien, 2800 Arten mit über 5000 Bildern dokumentiert) (Verein zur Erforschung der Flora von Österreich) (advertisement Exkusionsflora für Österreich, Liechtenstein und Südtirol) (Flora von Wien 1868, downloadable) (search the Herbarium Institut für Botanik der Universität Wien)


Baleares (Majorca, Ibiza...) (Espécies endémiques) (Bochumer Botanischer Verein; Flora von Mallorca 2008)


Belgium (Atlasproject Wallonië) (The Belgian Forum on Invasive Species, in English) (red list, Wikipedia) (sitings, Natuurpunt) (Federal Science-scheme) see also; (Herbarium, Meise) (Botanical garden Meise) (Periodical, Dumortiera) (Checklist, Liege, in French) (books on plants, Meise) (red list, INBO, download) (Photo's, University Leuven) (forum) (Botanical societies in Flanders)


Bulgaria (Bulgarian flora) (Bulgarian flora)


Canary islands (Parques Nacionales) (information about the plant life of Spain, Canaries and Madeira) (Introduction) (Flora Vascular de Canarias) (Jardín Botánico, Gran Canaria) (Flora of Gran Canaria)


Crete (Katharo plateau) (loads of pictures) (Nick Turland's photostream) (Karl Hauser's photostream) (Flroa of Crete: Supplement II, Additions 1997-2008) (some plants, in Dutch) (impression)


Croatia (Beiträge zur Flora von Croatien und Dalmatien, 1896, downloadable) (Botanical society) (Flora Croatica Database)


Cyprus (Comptes-rendus photographiques, Chypre 2001-2002) (lots of pictures) (Checklist, Photo's, Keys etc.) (some information)


Czech republic (lots of pictures and descriptions) (pictures, descriptions)


Denmark (Danish Nature and Vegetation) (plates of Flora Danica) (Biopix) (Orchids, in Danish) (Nature observations) (Orchids, in English) (Red list)


Estonia (Orchids) (Red list) (general information, in English)


European (Exkursionsflora von Europa, Franz Thonner, 1901, downloadable) (trees) (orchids) (checklist, mediterranean) (Conspectus florae europaeae, Nyman 1878-84, downloadable) (orchids) (Flora.cyberia, 800 photo's) (Atlas Florae Europaeae Database, distribution) (orchids) (plants Saxifraga, free nature images 2898 items) (orchids) (orchids) (travelreports, in Dutch) (Flora of Europe, Merik Voswinkel and Hans Loot) (orchids) (orchids) (orchids) (identification of European seeds and other plant parts)


Finland (red list)


France (Bassin Parisien) (Alpes-Maritime) (orchids) (distribution in France) (keys to Plants of France) (Orchis, Nord Pas de Calais) (distribution) (La flore européenne 105000 photos) (Provence, orchids) (photo's) (distribution) (Prodrome de la flore corse, J. Briquet, 1910-1955, downloadable) (Atlas de la Flore des environs de Paris, Cosson, E. 1882, downloadable) (Flore des Alpes Maritimes, Émile Burnat , -1920, downloadable) (Comptes-rendus photographiques, journeys) (Agr. Conservatoire botanique national de Bailleul) (1100 species in France) (Lorraine) (Orchids Korsika) (Arboretum de Villardebelle) (réserve naturelles of France) of Tarn-et-Garonne) (main site in France)


Germany (Orchids, Rheinland Pfalz) (Deutschlands Flora in Abbildungen) (forum pflanzenbestimmung) (Orchids Kaiserstuhl) (Orchids, Bayern) (Hamburg, orchids) (Orchids, Hessen) (Orchids Niedersachsen) (Orchids Nordrhein-Westfalen) (Orchids, Thüringen) (Trees) (biology books) (Photo's 'europäischer Wildpflanzen' 1.171 Species) (keys to 4135 species with beautiful pictures) (Botanical Garden Bochum 5319 pictures) (About Centaurea) (Eifel) (Orchids, Germany) (Orchids Eifel) (Fotografien von Wildpflanzen 3000+ Fotos aus Europa) (General, Frankfurt) (keys, observations and more) (Photo's Gerhard Nitter) (Orchids Mitteleuropa, Istrien, Rhodos, Kreta, Korsika, Sardinien) (Orchids and more by Günther) (Leo Michels, 2500 species, also non-native) (Orchids) (Orchids, Baden-Württemberg) (Andreas Kammann & Heike Esch; 6000 Photos of 1100 species) (Flora von Deutschland/Karlsruhe/Alpen Universität Karlsruhe) (vascular plants Mitteleuropa, checklist) (Flora and vegetation mainly Rheinland) (Online Exkursionsflora der Alpen und angrenzender Gebiete) (Flora von Frankfurt am Main)


Greece (Mountain flora of Greece 1 by Arne Strid, partly) (Mountain flora of Greece 2 by Arne Strid, partly) (orchids, Greece) (Orchids Rhodos, Kreta) (orchids, Greece) (Lesbos) (orchids Rhodes, in Greek) (Flora of Rhodes, Universität Karlsruhe)


Hungary (photo-album)


Iceland (HortusBotanicus with data on wild plants/photo's)


Ireland (checklist) (old books) (Dublin) (photo's, information) (flowering times)


Italy (actaplantarum, forum, photo's, keys) (protected plants of Liguria) (photo's, distribution) (Orchids, Italy-centro) (articles, books about Italian flora on line) (Endemiques, Alpi Apuane) (Flora Sardoa, Giuseppe Giacinto Moris, 1796-1869, downloadable) (Flora dell'isola di Pantelleria, S. Sommier, 1922, downloadable) (Flora italiana , Parlatore and Caruel, 1848-1896, downloadable) (Comptes-rendus photographiques, Sardaigne 2002) (Sicily, per district). (About flora around Bergamo) (Plants in the Alpes maritimes, in French en Italian) (flora of the Varese) (photo's, forum) (Orchids Sardinien) (orchids Picenti) (Trees of Italy) (Veneto plain, northeastern Italy)


Luxembourg (orchids, Luxemburg) (red list) (Atlas and red list of the pteridophytes of Luxembourg)


Madeira (information about the plant life of Spain, Canaries and Madeira) (Comptes-rendus photographiques, Madére 2007) (botanical garden) (journey, PDF)


Malta (Forum) (plantdetails)


Mediterranean (books) (Med-checklist) (Optima, makers of the med-checklist) (pictures)


The Netherlands (flora in Limburg) (Oudemans, De flora. Platen, PDF 112 MB !) (Wachter - Heukels, beknopte schoolflora 1936 , PDF, 16.7 MB),30.0.html (Forum) (observations in the Netherlands 1) (Downloadable Heukels 1909-1911) (main volunteer organisation) (flora in Amsterdam) (flora in Twente) (flora in Eindhoven) (Orchids, also European) (flora in Drenthe) (periodical) (Botanical gardens) (Checklist) (distribution of bioinfo institutes) (Digital flora, recent Heukels' flora) (plants in Naturereserves)* (observations in the Netherlands 2) (1800 species incl Belgium)


Norway (Plates of Nordens Flora, Lindman, Norway) (Orchids, Norway)


Poland (distribution, faded pictures..) (lists and short information)


Portugal (Naturereserves with information about flora) (Comptes-rendus photographiques, Portugal 2005) (Flora vicentina. Algarve)


Romenia (Nature observations and pictures)


Slovenia (Orchids Slovenia)


Slovakia (Journal, Biologia section botany) (Institue of Botany SAS, Bratislava) (Atlas biotopov Slovenska) (Bulletin Slovenskej botanickej spolocnosti) (red list, PDF) (books) (botanical garden)


Spain (books) (biodiversitat de Catalunya; distribution) (information about the plant life of Spain) (Flora de Ponent) (Spain, Cantabrica) (Flora de Catalunya, Juan Cadevall y diars, 1915-36) (Comptes-rendus photographiques, Espagne 2003) (Indices de Flora Montiberica) (pictures Catalunya) (Flora Iberica on-line) (acta botanica malacitane)


Sweden (red list, distribution) (Botaniska Föreningen Göteborg) (Ölands Botaniska Förening) (Den virtuella floran) (Flora Nordica project, review keys available) (Svenska Botaniska Föreningen) (Pictures, Leif & Anita Stridvall) (lots of pictures) (alien plants Göteborg) (Checklista över Nordens kärlväxter)


Switzerland (Nationales Daten- und Informationszentrum zur Schweizer Flora) (University of Basel; Images of wild plants) (Orchids Aargau, Switzerland) (of Alpenbotaniker Ernst Gubler) (Atlas der Alpenflora 4 volumes, Hartinger, 1882, downloadable) (Alps) (Swiss Web Flora)


Turkey (Alper Ertubey; pictures of mainly bulbuous plants)


United Kingdom (Scottish) (ferns) (Devon, Cornwall) (films) (New Flora of the British Isles, Stace 2010) (trees) (Alderney) (Cornwall) (Northern Ireland) (ferns) (West Highlands of Scotland) (About floral heritage) (SAPS - Identify British trees and shrubs) (ferns) (trees)


Garden plants (The European garden flora volume 2, partly) (trees) (trees) (Planted trees, in Dutch) (endemic plants for sale?!) (Palms) (aquatic)


Outside Europe


Africa (general) (Zambesi) (Southern-Africa) (Congo); (Comptes-rendus photographiques, Maroc 2007) (Comptes-rendus photographiques, Reunion 2004-2005) (Comptes-rendus photographiques, Tunisie 2006) (Botanical society, South Africa) (Central Africa) (Pteridophytes of Africa) (Guinea-equatorial) (Kyffhauser Namibia) (Africa) (Mozambique) (Southern-Africa) (Southern-Africa) (Southern-Africa) (Congo/Uganda - Mount Rwenzori) (Zimbabwe) (Africa excl. Madagascar) (Photo Guide to Plants of Southern Africa) (Namibia)


Asia (Digital flora Sinai, Syria en Palestina) (Orchids, Geogia) (Jordania) (Maleisië) (Asia) (Checklist Jordania) (Libanon en Syria) (Libanon)


Australia / New Zealand (online Flora of New Zealand 5 volumes) (New Zealand Plants) (New South Wales) (Cycades) (New South Wales) ( Flora of Australia online and more) (books) (Australian Native Plants-forum) (Australia's Virtual Herbarium )


Canada (Polar life) (Nova Scotia) (checklist New Foundland and Labrador) (Southeastern New Brunswick)


Falklands (flora and fauna Falklands) (article Falklands) (checklist Falklands)


Global (Database System for Systematics and Taxonomy) (orchids, worldwide) (List of botany journals) (more links about Gentians) (ferns) (the virtual field herbarium) (Orchids, more links) (Botanical gardens) (journal, Willdenowia) (more links) (World Wide Flowering Plant Family Identification) (on line Floras) (Leguminosae) (names) (Journal; Systematic Botany) (more info/links) (Checklist of Ferns and Lycophytes of the World, Un. von Karlsruhe)


Israël (Flora of Israel) (Botanical garden)


North-America (forum) (Texas) (California) (New York) (Botanical Society of America) (California) (Trees) (New England) (Texas) (Connecticut) (Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden) (Illinois) (Flowering Plants of Pennsylvania, Un. von Karlsruhe)


Southern America (Argentina, Botanical insitute) (Comptes-rendus photographiques, Ile Maurice 2004-2005) (Chile) (Chile, (Argentina) (Herbarium Data Northeast Brazil) (Checklist Ballivian, Bolivia) (Meso America) (South America)