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Plant species of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Recorded in June 2012 by Jeroen Willemsen

 

On this page you will find (click to jump):

-      General information on planning a BotanicalJourney in Bosnia and Herzegovina

-     Report of a Botanical Journey in Bjelasnica

-     Report of a Botanical Journey in Sutjeska National Park

-     A list of all recorded species in Bjelasnica

-     A list of all recorded species in Sutjeska National Park

 

 

A BotanicalJourney in Bosnia and Herzegovina

 

Walking in Bosnia and Herzegovina is truly a challenge in many ways. Bosnia-Herzegovina is one of the most beautiful European countries I know; it is only densely populated, which leaves a lot of space for forests, mountain ranges and grassy pastures. The challenge of going on a BotanicalJourney to Bosnia and Herzegovina is to find out where to go and how to get there. On this page I will present the Botanical richness of two areas: the Bjelasnica mountain range, south of Sarajevo (famous for the Olympics that were organized there once) and Stujeska National Park on the Eastern border of Bosnia and Herzegovina with Montenegro (Crna Gora).

Gentiana utriculosa

 

To get the nasty things done with first, I have to say something about the mine risk in the country. Only a small percentage of Bosnia and Herzegovina is contaminated with mines. Unfortunately this area covers the Botanically most interesting parts like high mountains (for example Prenj and Treskavica) and river beds like the Neretva. There are maps available that indicate the areas with a high mine risk, but these maps are inaccurate and hard to find. A useful publication however is the book Forgotten Beauty by Matias Gomez, published by Buybook (a publishing company annex book shop in Sarajevo). The book is not easy to buy, but with a little effort you can still find it on the internet and at Buybook. Mr. Gomez has climbed all the peaks of over 2,000 meters in Bosnia and Herzegovina and describes the paths he followed and the best way to navigate along them. He has added maps with mine risks as well. We found the book to be invaluable during our BotanicalJourney because it contained detailed maps of the areas we walked and warned us for mine-contaminated areas where we had to be careful. If you go on a BotanicalJourney in such an area, use your common sense and do NOT step aside of the paths. Fortunately there are many mine-free areas in Bosnia and Herzegovina that are definitely worth visiting. One of them is Sutjeska which I will describe below.

 

After you have managed to find the book Forgotten Beauty and/or managed to find recent maps which can help you preparing your BotanicalJourney, the next problem to overcome is how to find a flora that is useful. There are some publications on the wild plants of Bosnia and Herzegovina, but they are outdated, written in an incomprehensible language, or just very incomplete. For identification of species I combined lots of different floras. By taking large numbers of pictures I was able to identify some species when I returned home. My BotanicalJourneys were restricted to mountain areas, which narrowed down the number of possible plant species a bit. I recommend using the following publications (some of which I found with the generous help of a nice lady from the department of Botany of the Museum for Natural History in Sarajevo):

-     P. Fukarek: 'Zajednica klekovine bora (Pinetum mughi Horvat) i neke razvojne tendencije na bosansko-hercegovackim planinama (Plant community of Mugho Pine (Pinetum mughi Horvat) and some developmental tendencies of its successions in the mountains of Bosnia and Herzegovina)' Glasilo Sumarskog Drustva Nr Hrvatske, No. 11-12, November-December 1956, pp 343-357.

-     R. Lakusić et. al: 'Planinska vegetacija Maglica, Volujaka i Zelengore (The mountain vegetation of the Maglic, Volujak and Zelengora area)', Posebna izdanja XI, Akademija nauka i umjetnosti Bosne i Hercegovine, Odjeljenje prirodnih i matematickih nauka, Sarajevo, 1969, pp 171-188.

-     Z. Bjelcic: 'Prilog poznavanju flore nekih bosanskih i crnogorski planina (Contribution to the knowledge of the flora of some Bosnian and Montenegrin mountains)', Godisnjak bioloskog instituta u Sarajevu, Godina IX, sveska 1-2, Sarajevo 1956, pp 141-152.

-      C. Silic and S. Abadzic: 'Endemic plant species in the ecosystems of the mountains around the river Sutjeska', Godisnjak bioloskog instituta u Sarajevu,, Volume 39, Sarajevo 1986, pp 151-160.

 

 

Centaurea montana

The final problem you have to solve is the one that deals with transportation. Travelling by car is the easiest way to get around in Bosnia and Herzegovina, but there is a regular bus service from the larger towns to most of the villages as well. You cannot really plan anything in advance and even when you are at the bus stations in large cities, it is virtually impossible to find out which service is going where. My advice is: don't hesitate and just take any bus that goes in the direction you want to go. There is always a connecting bus service, even if nobody can tell you exactly when and where. People are very friendly and willing to help you, and in my case I always got to the places I wanted to go.

 

 

BotanicalJourney in Bjelasnica (Google Map)

 

The first BotanicalJourney I will describe is in the Bjelasnica mountain range, Southwest of Sarajevo. The tallest peak in this mountain range has an elevation of just over 2,000 meters. In 1984 the Winter Olympics were organized in Sarajevo and the men's alpine skiing events took place on Bjelasnica. There are still hotels and skiing facilities dating from that time that can be reached by car. We wanted to cross Bjelasnica by foot and walk all the way to the town of Konjic, so we asked a taxi driver to bring us to hotel Marsal, at an altitude of about 1,300 meter. The staff of Oaza camp in Sarajevo (which I can recommend as a camp site!) negotiated a reasonable price for us. Should you choose to walk from Sarajevo, please be aware that you cross some mine fields while ascending the hills. They are marked, but be careful nonetheless. Once you reach a certain height there is no mine risk according to the maps.

 

 

Bjelašnica

 

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From hotel Marsal a narrow asphalt road continued to go up hill. At first we passed many skiing facilities which were not particularly nice to look at, but soon the road changed to an unpaved path running along the edge of a forest with Gentiana asclepiadea and Symphytum tuberosum next to the road. At an altitude of about 1,500 meters the last trees were vanished and we found ourselves in a rocky and grassy environment. It was possible to walk all the way up to the summit of Bjelasnica (2,067 meters), but we chose to follow the road Westwards. During the sometimes steep ascend we found many alpine and subalpine plant species. Most abundant was without any doubt Linum capitatum (see picture). The combination of its bright yellow color together with the heavenly blue of Gentiana utriculosa in overwhelming quantities was somewhat surreal. Between the rocks we found some specimens of Viola biflora.

 

 

After a while we passed a mountain saddle and entered the Dugo Polje, a large plateau surrounded by high rocky cliffs. The rocks were rich in limestone and there were many dolines present with lots of Veratrum album and here and there Coeloglossum viride. There were one or two plants of Hyoscyamus niger as well. On the bottom of the valley there were many Helleborus species which I believed to be Helleborus dumetorum. Between the rocks in the grassy fields we found Campanula patula and Minuartia graminifolia. At the cliffs on the south side of Dugo Polje there were some wet places in which we found both Pedicularis comosa and Pedicularis friderici-augusti. Near a small hill top called "Razaslje" we followed a small track to the summit (altitude: 1,361 meter) where we found Ornithogalum oligophyllum (see picture), Antennaria carpatica, Potentilla pusilla and Rhinanthus borbasii. As you can see, the vegetation was sub-alpine here.

 

 

Ornithogalum oligophyllum

 

Viola calcarata

 

 

 

On the other side of the valley we turned left on a track heading for the village of Gradine. This village was inhabited by some women and a little boy, who greeted us friendly. The village was surrounded by grassy fields (for hay production) that were rich in Rhinanthus species as well as in Viola calcarata (see picture) and several other human influenced plant species, like Urtica dioica, Plantago major, Myosotis scorpioides, Vicia cracca and Ajuga reptans.

 

 

The author of Forgotten beauty chooses to walk to the village of Umoljani before heading West, but we followed a grassy track to "Studeni potok", which means Cold creek. This is a small valley with a meandering stream of clear mountain water. There is a legend about Studeni potok, saying that once a terrible dragon came from the Rakitnica canyon that chased away the villagers of Umoljani. This dragon had a snake shaped body that still can be seen up till today in the form of the creek. We didn't see any snakes (or dragons for that matter) but we did see a very nicely developed ecosystem. Just to give you an impression: next to the water there were masses of Caltha palustris, Rhinanthus borbasii, Geum rivale, Lychnis flos-cuculi, Polygonum bistorta and Trollius europaeus. A little bit further away from the water we found Lychnis viscaria (see picture), Chamaecytisus hirsutus (gr.), Scorzonera rosea, Lilium bosniacum, Dactylorhiza sambucina, Anthyllis vulneraria ssp alpestris and Euphorbia brittingeri.

 

Lychnis viscaria

 

 

 

Lilium bosniacum

At the first specimen of Lilium bosniacum (see picture) we cheered and were impressed by the beauty of the species. When we looked a little bit further in front of us we saw many, many, many more specimens of this beautiful plant. The identification of this plant, though easily recognizable, was somewhat of a puzzle because of changes in species names. Lilium bosniacum, Lilium albanicum and Lilium jankae have been regarded as varieties of Lilium carneolicum for a long time, but based on DNA-analyses they are now treated as separate species. The species look alike very much, with yellow sepals, curved strongly and forming a Turk's cap-shape. The flowers are placed in racemes of 1-6 and can be used to tell the difference between the species. The sepals of Lilium jankae have purple spots. The sepals of Lilium bosniacum are a bit purplish at the base as well, but do not have distinct spots. The sepals of Lilium albanicum are almost completely yellow or orange, but do not have purple spots.

 

 

Because the valley of Studeni potok was so beautiful we decided to put up our tent to stay there for the night. The next morning the valley proved to be breathtakingly magnificent in the fragile light of the upcoming sun. After we packed our belongings in our backpack we continued our route, soon to arrive at the top of the famous Rakitnica gorge. This is said to be one of the most untouched gorges in Europe with lots of endemic plant species. We did not enter the gorge, simply because we didn't have a good map of the area and were not sure of potential mining activities during the war. But there was a lot to see at the top of the ravine as well! In a grassy field we found Alyssum murale, Scorzonera rosea (see picture), Trifolium montanum, Veronica austriaca ssp jacquini and Onobrychis montana. Between the rocks going down steeply we found Helianthemum nummularium, Ornithogalum oligophyllum, Dianthus carthusianorum and, from a little distance, Chaerophyllum coloratum.

 

 

Scorzonera rosea

 

Iris graminea

The narrow path soon entered a forest, that provided us with a lot of new plant species. Right next to the path huge amounts of Iris graminea (see picture left) were present. Here we also found Crataegus calycina, Viburnum lanata, Geranium sanguineum, Hypericum alpigenum, Paris quadrifolia and Melittis melissopphyllum. The forest was rather dense, but it contained also more open grassy areas with Polygala major, Smyrnium perfoliatum, Trifolium alpestre and Vicia montenegrina. We climbed a rocky slope where we found Globularia cordifolia, Campanula trachelium (see picture right), Onosma stellulata, Saxifraga paniculata, Muscari commutatum, Bellevalia dubia and Alyssum montanum.

 

Campanula trachelium

 

After a while we arrived at Lukomir. According to the many leaflets published by the Sarajevo tourist information this is supposed to be the most remote village in Europe. It may well be the case, but we noticed that this remote village was easily accessible by car and that both electricity and satellite television were present. So we didn't try to make contact with the local traditional villagers but continued our Botanical Journey instead. We planned to walk all the way to the town of Blace and then to the Neretva valley. So in Lukomir we passed a small river with Ranunculus thora, climbed a rocky hill and continued to follow a pre-war path to the West. We found some very beautiful specimens of Onosma stellulata (see picture) here, as well as Centaurea montana. The road appeared to be disused for quite some time and as soon as we realized that we had entered some sort of minefield we turned back to Lukomir and followed a gravel road northwards instead. We put up our tent somewhere suitable and in the night we could hear wolves howling in the hills surrounding us.

 

Onosma stellulata

 

Pedicularis frederici-augusti

The next day we had come up with another plan and decided to walk towards the town of Konjic. The gravel path was well used so we didn't have to worry about mines here (although some sidetracks were closed and signed with warning messages). The path brought us through several plateaus rich in lime stone with Ajuga genevensis, Salvia pratensis and lots of Helleborus dumetorum present. In a chestnut forest we found Doronicum columnae and Pedicularis friderici-augusti (see picture). At some locations the snow had melted just a couple of days ago. There we found species like Gentiana utriculosa, Ranunculus montanus and both Primula elatior and Primula veris.

 

Our BotanicalJourney ended near the town of Vrdolje, where a car stopped and offered us a lift all the way to Mostar. The temperatures had climbed to more than thirty degrees so we gladly accepted the offer as well as the home-made lemonade. The people were very friendly, as most people in Bosnia- Herzegovina are! From Mostar we took a Centrotrans-bus to the town of Tjentiste, in the middle of the Sutjeska National Park. And that is where our next BotanicalJourney took place.

 

 

 

BotanicalJourney in Sutjeska National Park (Google Map)

(please note: the georeference of this route is not very accurate, due to the low quality of the satellite image in GoogleMaps)

 

Sutjeska, situated at the border with Montenegro, has been a National Park since 1962 and covers an area of about 17,500 hectares. It is famous for its World War II history when Tito proved to be cleverer than the German army. This occasion is still remembered by impressive monuments where people come to lay fresh flowers every day in memory of the great Tito. But Sutjeska also is one of the most diversified Nature Parks of the Balkan. It includes the highest peak of Maglić at 2,386 meters and contains many glacier lakes like Trnovačko Jezero. At lower altitudes you can find Peručica primeval forest, with impressive more than 60 meters high trees, aged well over 300 years. Skakavac Waterfall is one of the highest waterfalls in Bosnia and Herzegovina: the water drops down over more than 75 meters and flows towards the deep and rugged canyon of Sutjeska River. In Sutjeska you can find bears, boars, wolves, martens, golden eagles and Greek partridges. The park's vegetation includes forests, mountain areas, rocks and meadows. The northwestern hill slopes are covered with coniferous and beech trees up to an elevation of 1,600 meters. It is said that 2,600 plant species can be found in Sutjeska, of which many are endemic.

Sutjeska

 

 

Gymnadenia conopsea

The village of Tjentiste is not more than a couple of houses with a petrol station. There are also a police office, a small shop, a swimming pool and a hotel with a camp site. Don't expect too much of the camp site, but if you don't care for a luxurious stay, it is pretty OK, I guess. From the village Sutjeska National Park can be entered by following the small road opposite the petrol station (this is where the small shop is as well). When you are by car you can drive up to a parking space at Prijevor (altitude about 1,700 meters) or an area at about 5 kilometers after Dragos Selo (at about 1,600 meters). In our case we didn't have a car, but a member of the hotel staff kindly drove us up hill to Prijevor. The view over the mountain tops of Sutjeska was impressive.

 

So our second BotnicalJourney started at an altitude of 1,700m. The first goal of this Journey was the Volujak-range, of which the summit has a height of 2,336m. The route towards Volujak was clearly marked with red-and-white paint marks on trees and stones, so orientation was not difficult at all. The vegetation at the start of the trip at Prijevor was already somewhat subalpine and rich in orchids: mainly Dactylorhiza majalis and Gymnadenia conopsea (see picture). There were also many specimens of Lilium bosniacum present there.

 

 

Soon the path entered the country of Montenegro, or Crna Gora. The border was marked by a small wooden sign. The forest was very dense at some places and rich in mosquito's. We found Euphorbia carniolica and Agrimonia agrimonoides here. In a small valley with a little lake called Suva Jezerina there was a small path going down towards Tjentiste, following a small stream. Though it looked interesting enough we didn't follow it but continued the path up hill instead. After a while we reached Trnovačo Jezero. This is a glacier lake at an elevation of 1,513 meters, surrounded by steep slopes from the Maglić and Volujak mountain ranges. We were the only people present there so the silence and force of nature beauty was astonishing. The lake was surrounded by Dactylorhiza majalis and Trollius europaeus (see picture). Many dragonflies were hovering above the lake and we could see some fish in the crystal clear water.

Trollius europaeus

 

Campanula hercegovina

 

From the lake we followed a path Southeast, climbed a grassy slope, passed some houses and went up to the slopes of the Volujak range. In the rocky crevices we found Edraianthus serpyllifolius (see picture) and Silene saxifraga. By the way: if you should choose to follow this path in the summer, be aware that the small stream near the houses is the last place where you can collect water. There are no streams higher up in the mountains, unless you manage to find some recently melted snow.

 

In our case the visit to Sutjeska took place quite early in the season so there were many places where the snow had melted only a couple of days ago. These areas, where the grass was still brown from the snow that had been on top of it, were rich in Crocus vernus, Soldanella alpina and Ranunculus montanus. A little bit higher up the slopes we found Gentiana acaulis, Dactylorhiza sambucina and many, many, many Dryas octopetala. The latter was quite abundant on the Volujak slopes. Anthyllis vulneraria ssp alpestris was present at many rocks as well and we also found Pedicularis orthantha. The yellow flowers of Viola zoysii (see picture) were clearly visible throughout the area.

Viola zoysii

 

Pedicularis brachyodonta

The vegetation became more alpine as we climbed the hill. Salix retusa, Ranunculus narcissifolius, Astragalus depressus and Muscari botryoides were some of the species to prove that. At one location we found a Pedicularis species I could not identify at first. I took several pictures, which made it possible to identify the plant afterwards by using Flora Euopaea. I believe it was Pedicularis brachyodonta (see picture). The finding of Geranium pretense was somewhat surprising to me, because I didn't know it could be found at such high altitudes.

 

 

The path continued to go up hill, all the way to the saddle in between the peaks of Volujak and Trnovački Durmitor. We followed the path as far as we could, but in the end the Volujak summit proved to be inaccessible for us. We didn't have the right equipment to climb the snow-covered slopes at the last couple of hundreds of meters, so we ended our walk at an altitude of about 2,100 meters. The view was spectacular and the area was rich in plant species: Silene acaulis, Androsace villosa (see picture), Euphorbia capitulata and Aster bellidiastrum were some of them. There was one Euphorbia species that I could not identify. Maybe it was Euphorbia montenegrina, but I am not sure of that. I took a picture of it, so maybe I am able to confirm or decline this identification later. We descended the hills and put up our tent somewhere at a more or less horizontal area.

Androace villosa

 

Saxifraga marginata

The next day we went back to Trnovačko Jezero. From there we climbed the steep slope to the northwest, heading for the Maglić, which is the highest mountain of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Its altitude is 2,386 meters. The ascend was heavy: from Trnovačko Jezero we had to climb about 700 meters in a horizontal distance of about 1,500 meters. While scrambling over the rocks we found many specimens of Saxifraga marginata (see picture). Some parts of the path were not visible anymore because of small slides of loose rocks and stones. Orientation was not difficult however (just go up, up, up) and finally we reached the summit ridge at an altitude of about 2,200 meters. The ridge was partially covered with Pinus mugo.

 

From there on the walk was easier and far less steep. Many alpine plant species were present, like Nigritella nigra, Silene acaulis and Gentiana acaulis (see picture). The top of the Maglić was easy accessible and quite busy with other visitors (I believed them to be Czechs because they said "Ahoy" to eachother, which was very funny because in the Netherlands this word is only used by sailors like Popeye). Just a couple of hundreds of meters below the summit of Maglić we followed a path going (north)west. At first it was a very steep way down. Many parts of this slope were less exposed to the sun, so there were several new plant species to be found there. Cerinthe glabra was one of the most obvious, but we also found Muscari armeniacum, Scilla bifolia and Polystichum lonchitis.

Gentiana acaulis

 

Botrychium lunaria

 

 

 

 

After a while we reached a landscape with many dolines. This area consisted of limestone and there were many grassy fields containing Nigritella nigra, Dactylorhiza sambucina (both purple and yellow), Silene sendtneri and Lilium bosniacum. We also found many specimens of the biggest Botrychium lunaria we have ever seen (see picture)!

 

 

Later we entered the famous forest of Perućica primeval forest. There were trees of over 300 years old, with an unimaginable height (more than 60 meters). Plant species were spectacular as well: Cephalanthera longifolia, Cephalanthera rubra, Convallaria majalis (see picture), Melittis melissophyllum, Phyteuma orbiculare, Euphorbia amygdaloides, Aquilegia vulgaris, Geranium phaeum and Lunaria rediviva are some of the species we found. The smell of Allium ursinum was penetrating the whole forest. On exposed, rocky places we found Saxifraga paniculata and in a field near some sort of Tito-memorial there were lots of Tragopogon pratensis and Verbascum glabratum. We followed the road all the way back to Tjentiste, where our BotanicalJourney ended.

 

Convallaria majalis

 


So this is where my report on two BotanicalJourneys in Bosnia and Herzegovina ends. As you probably have noticed, I am enthusiastic about the country, the mountains, the plant species and the people. I really can recommend everybody looking for overwhelming nature, solitude and wildlife magnificence to visit the area.

I will conclude this BotanicalJourney by presenting a full list of the wild plant species I recorded in Bjelasnica (118 species) and in Sutjeska (161 species).

 

Full list of observed species in Bjelasnica (Google Map):

Achillea millefolium
Acinos alpinus
Adenostyles alliariae
Ajuga genevensis
Ajuga reptans
Alyssum montanum
Alyssum murale
Anemone narcissiflora
Anemone nemorosa
Antennaria carpatica
Anthyllis vulneraria ssp alpestris
Armeria canescens
Asplenium fissum
Bellevalia dubia
Botrychium lunaria
Caltha palustris
Campanula patula
Campanula rotundifolia
Campanula trachelium
Carlina acaulis
Centaurea montana
Chaerophyllum coloratum
Chamaecytisus hirsutus cf.
Cicerbita alpina
Coeloglossum viride
Crataegus calycina
Dactylorhiza sambucina
Dianthus carthusianorum
Dianthus sylvestris
Diphasium alpinum
Doronicum columnae
Echium vulgare
Euphorbia brittingeri
Faga vescaria
Fragaria viridis
Fritillaria messanensis
Galeobdolon luteum
Gentiana acaulis
Gentiana asclepiadea
Gentiana utriculosa
Geranium sanguineum
Geum montanum
Geum rivale
Globularia cordifolia
Gypsophila repens
Helianthemum nummularium
Helleborus dumetorum
Hyoscyamus niger
Hypericum alpigenum
Iris graminea
Jasione orbiculata
Juniperus communis
Lilium bosniacum
Linum capitatum
Lychnis flos-cuculi
Lychnis viscaria
Melittis melissophyllum
Minuartia graminifolia
Muscari commutatum
Myosotis alpestris
Myosotis scorpioides
Onobrychis montana
Onosma stellulata
Ophioglossum vulgatum
Ornithogalum oligophyllum
Paris quadrifolia
Pedicularis friderici-augusti
Pedicularis verticillata
Phyteuma orbiculare
Pinus mugo
Plantago major
Polygala major
Polygonum bistorta
Potentilla crantzii
Potentilla montenegrina
Potentilla pusilla
Primula elatior
Primula veris
Ranunculus montanus
Ranunculus thora
Rhinanthus borbasii
Rhodiola rosea
Rumex alpinus
Rumex scutatus
Salvia pratensis
Sanguisorba officinalis
Saxifraga paniculata
Saxifraga stellaris
Scorzonera rosea
Sedum reflexum
Selaginella denticulata
Sempervivum zeleborii
Senecio rupestris
Silene alpestris
Silene nutans
Silene sendtneri
Silene vulgaris
Symphytum tuberosum
Smyrnium perfoliatum
Stachys annua
Thesium alpinum
Trifolium alpestre
Trifolium montanum
Trollius europaeus
Tussilago farfara
Urtica dioica
Valeriana montana
Valeriana officinalis
Veratrum album
Verbascum spec
Veronica austriaca ssp jacquini
Viburnum lanata
Vicia cracca
Vicia montenegrina
Viola biflora
Viola calcarata
Viola odorata
Viola riviniana

Full list of observed species in Sutjeska National Park (Google Map):

Achillea abrotanoides
Achillea millefolium
Acinos alpinus
Aconitum variegatum
Adenostyles alliariae
Adiantum capillus-veneris
Agrimonia agrimonoides
Agrostemma githago
Allium ursinum
Anacamptis pyramidalis
Androsace villosa
Anemone narcissiflora
Anemone nemorosa
Anogramma leptophylla
Antennaria dioica
Anthericum ramosum
Anthyllis vulneraria ssp alpestris
Aquilegia vulgaris
Armeria canescens
Aruncus dioicus
Asarum europaeum
Asphodelus albus
Asplenium fissum
Astagalus depressus
Aster bellidiastrum
Astragalus depressus
Astragalus sirinicus
Athyrium filix femina
Botrychium lunaria
Caltha palustris
Edraianthus serpyllifolius
Campanula latifolia
Campanula patula
Campanula rotundifolia
Campanula trachelium
Carlina acaulis
Cephalanthera longifolia
Cephalanthera rubra
Cerinthe glabra
Cicerbita alpina
Coeloglossum viride
Convallaria majalis
Cortoneaster integerrima
Corylus avellana
Crocus vernus
Dactylorhiza incarnata
Dactylorhiza majalis
Dactylorhiza sambucina
Dianthus carthusianorum
Dianthus sylvestris
Dryas octopetala
Erigeron polymorphus
Euphorbia amygdaloides
Euphorbia capitulata
Euphorbia carniolica
Faga vescaria
Fagus sylvatica
Fritillaria messanensis
Galeobdolon luteum
Galium mollugo
Gentiana acaulis
Gentiana asclepiadea
Gentiana punctata
Gentiana utriculosa
Geranium phaeum
Geranium pratense
Geum montanum
Gymnadenia conopsea
Gypsophila repens
Helianthemum nummularium
Helleborus dumetorum
Hieracium aurantiacum
Homogyne alpina
Hypericum alpinum
Juniperus communis
Lactuca perennis
Lamiastrum galeobdolon
Lamium album
Lathyrus latifolius
Lilium bosniacum
Linum austriacum
Linum capitatum
Linum flavum
Listera ovata
Lunaria rediviva
Luzula sylvatica
Lychnis viscaria
Lysimachia nemorum
Lysimachia nummularia
Maianthemum bifolium
Melittis melissophyllum
Muscari armeniacum
Muscari botryoides
Myosotis alpestris
Myosotis laxa
Narcissus poeticus
Nigritella nigra
Orobanche alba
Oxyria digyna
Pedicularis brachyodonta
Pedicularis friderici-augusti
Pedicularis orthantha
Pedicularis verticillata
Phyteuma orbiculare
Pinus mugo
Plantago argentea
Plantago coronopus
Plantago reniformis
Polygonatum verticillatum
Polygonum bistorta
Polygonum viviparum
Polystichum lonchitis
Potentilla crantzii
Potentilla montenegrina
Primula elatior
Pteridium aquilinum
Pulmonaria officinalis
Quercus petraea
Ranunculus montanus
Rumex alpinus
Rumex nivalis
Rumex scutatus
Salix retusa
Salvia pratensis
Sambucus nigra
Sanguisorba officinalis
Saxifraga caesia
Saxifraga marginata
Saxifraga paniculata
Saxifraga stellaris
Scilla bifolia
Scrophularia nodosa
Sedum album
Sedum alpestre
Selaginella denticulata
Senecio rupestris
Silene acaulis
Silene alpestris
Silene nutans
Silene saxifraga
Silene sendtneri
Silene vulgaris
Soldanella alpina
Sorbus aucuparia
Stellaria holostea
Stellaria nemorum
Thesium alpinum
Tragopogon pratensis
Trollius europaeus
Tussilago farfara
Urtica dioica
Vaccinium myrtillus
Vaccinium vitis-idaea
Valeriana montana
Valeriana officinalis
Veratrum album
Verbascum glabratum ?
Vicia cracca
Viola odorata
Viola riviniana
Viola zoysii