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Plant anomalies

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Plant species of Sardinia (Italy)

Recorded in April and May 2009 by Jeroen Willemsen and Rutger Barendse


On our 2009 Botanical Journey we decided to go to Sardegna. From previous visits to the Mediterranean area we knew we could expect many nice plant species there, and some endemics as well. As usual the purpose of our trip was to find as many different plant species as possible. To keep things easy for ourselves we registered each plant species only the first time we found it. A complete list of the recorded species is added below. For identification of species we used the following books:

-     R. Brotzu: Fiori spontanei della Sardegna.

-     D. Jaenmonod and J. Gamisans: Flora Corsica (Aix-en-Provence 2007).

-     M. Blamey and C. Grey-Wilson: Wild flowers of the Mediterranean (London 2004).

-     S. Pignatti (ed.): Flora d'Italia (2003).

-     T.G. Tutin et al. (eds.): Flora Europaea (Cambridge University Press).



22 April 2009: Arrival at Cagliari airport

Since our goal was to find as many different plant species as we could, we started right on the grounds of the airport in Cagliari to write down some species. After all, widespread species should be noted too. We found a lot of plants at the back entrance of the parking building for rental cars (Google map) - most of them with conspicuous flowers. Bellardia trixago (see picture), Hedysarum coronarium and Cerinthe major were especially nice to see. The place proved to be a good spot to practice our knowledge on Echium as well: we found Echium italicum, Echium parviflorum and Echium plantagineum. Several grasses were noted, such as Briza maxima, Bromus madritensis, Bromus rubens and Desmazeria rigida. Hidden in the vegetation we discovered both Convolvulus althaeoides and Convolvulus arvensis. We were just getting in the mood when the clouds bursted into heavy rainfall, forcing us to get into the rental car. Our first score was not too bad at all: 64 species and we were still on the airport. Through heavy rains we drove westward to the town of Gonnesa where our first accommodation was situated on a private Estate just outside the town.

23 April 2009: Around Palude sa Masa near Gonnesa (Google map with route)

When you follow the road from the town of Gonnesa towards the beach you pass a bridge over a river. The side of the road offers a rich variety in wild flowers such as Cerinthe major again (see upper picture) but this time in truly enormous amounts, and Galactites tomentosa. Just behind the bridge there was a narrow unpaved path to the right. This path lead towards the extended marshy area of Palude sa Masa. In a few hours time we found 168 new plant species here. Following the river we turned right for a moment and crossed the stream over a very narrow bridge to enter some sort of a swamp. We found species like Carex distans, Carex otrubae and Ranunculus muricatus here. Back on the main track we were lead through bushes of Arundo donax, but fortunately we finally arrived in a more open area. Next to the road there were several man-high specimens of Ferula communis, a nice yellow flowering Umbellifer with lots of insects on it. In a more grassy area we were attracted by large numbers of Parentucellia viscosa and Bellardia trixago on the left side of the road. When you find species like that, Orchid species are usually not far away. And indeed we found Ophrys sphegodes subsp. atrata and Barlia robertiana easily. Even more easy to find were Serapias cordigera and Serapias parviflora (see lower picture). Looking inside the flower to establish the right species is unfortunately always necessary when you find Serapias. We crossed some sort of canal and followed the road back to Gonnesa. Verbascum creticum was nice to find here. Originally we planned to take a shortcut alongside the edge of the swamp, but an unfriendly resident with a very impressive dog declared that road as private property. Thus we were forced to take a more boring road through an occupied area. This enabled us to write down some more common species.




23 April 2009: Coast near Piaggia Mesu (Gonnesa) (Google map)

Compared to Italian habits people from Holland you are used to eating early in the evening. A big advantage to this habit is that the evening is long enough to make another trip. So we took our sophisticated rental-car and drove down to the coast. Many Gonnesan love couples who were enjoying the sunset must have wondered what two guys were doing in the bushes near the beach. Well, this is not a secret: we were looking for wild flowers. And a good place it was, too! We found a lot of seaside plants like Cakile maritima, Crithmum maritimum, Crucianella maritima, Eryngium maritimum, Lavatera maritima, Medicago littoralis, Medicago marina, Otanthus maritimus and Pancratium maritimum. The location proved to be a good place for finding Silene as well: Silene colorata, Silene nodulosa, Silene sericea and Silene succulenta (see picture). Another 23 species added to our list.



24 April 2009: Grotta di San Giovanni (northwest of Domusnˇvas) (Google map)

The next morning Rutger was up VERY early, so after a quick breakfast we looked on the map to find our next destination. According to our map there should be a road through a forest, going north from the town of Domusnovas. In reality the road did exist, but was closed for motorised vehicles at the Grotta di San Giovanni. We decided to leave the car there. It looked like a place where thousands of tourists spend their time in the summer. When we arrived it was nice and quiet.




Identification troubles started right away: a mysterious Senecio was found on the rocks near the entrance of the cave. At first we were not able to identify it correctly, but by taking several pictures and looking it up in books afterwards we decided it to be Senecio delphinifolius (see picture). We found some specimens of Campanula erinus attached to the rocks as well. We didn't enter the cave (why should we; plants do not grow in the darkness of a cave), but we turned to the left just in front of the cave. A small road lead up into he hills and some small footpaths enabled us to climb into the slopes of the hill. We saw several Trifolium species here, like Trifolium spumosum, Trifolium subterraneum and Trifolium tomentosum.


We passed a little church before the first trees of the forest began. Cyclamen repandrum was to be found everywhere and with the help of a flora we also could identify Scrophularia oblongifolia and Scrophularia peregrina. Of course our little Orchid-friends did not disappoint us: Ophrys tenthredinifera aprilia (see picture) surprised us with stamens full of flowers. In order of appearance we discovered Ophrys arachnitiformis (= O. morisii), Ophrys speculum (= O. vernixia = O. ciliata), Ophrys chestermanii and Aceras anthropophorum. After this orchid-overkill we decided to enter the cave. For economical purposes it was lightened on the inside and although there surely must be somebody who enjoys being there, we were glad to be out in the open again on the north entrance of the cave. Our 'expedition' through the cave was rewarded generously with Ophrys tenthredinifera, Ophrys annae, Serapias lingua and Orchis pappilionacea on the other side of the cave. I personally like Saxifraga very much and on the rocks we found the subtle flowers of Saxifraga granulata. Towards the end of the day we also found several specimens of Gynandriris sisyrinchium as well.



25 April 2009: Salt lakes south of Sant' Antioco (Google map)

After a good nightsĺ sleep we decided to go to the peninsula of Sant'Antioco in the southwest of Sardegna. Back at home we used Google Earth to search the area and we noticed the presence of salt lakes south of the village of Sant'Antioco. So we parked our car in some sort of deserted area and walked south along the shore. To anyone who is looking for spectacular plant species we strongly recommend going to Sant'Antioco. For example, Cynomorium coccineum (see picture) is one of these species you only know from pictures in books. But when you really find several of these plants, your body starts to shake and you start screaming of sheer excitement. That is to say, if you do not smell the plants, because we do not know what will happen to you when you do so. Anyway, hundreds of flies apparently liked the smell because the plants were covered with them.


Along the water we found Halocnemum strobilaceum and in the sand on the beach Juncus striatum, Scorpiurus vermiculatus, Sedum litoreum, Spergularia marina, Suaeda maritima, Suaeda vera, Triglochin bulbosa, Zostera marina and Silene sericea. When you keep following the beach you finally reach a small road that brings you back to the north. We saw Ecballium elaterium there.


25 April 2009: Border of maquis in the southwest of Sant' Antioco (Google map - location uncertain)

After our successful walk along the coast we decided to drive more to the south of the peninsula. We followed a road that was not the one on our map and when we finally were totally lost, we decided to check some maquis for new species. For anyone who does not know what maquis is we recommend to read Asterix and Obelix on Corse. The dense prickly shrubbery in which Asterix and Obelix try to get rid of the Romans, is called maquis. It is a phenomenon you should experience yourself if you want to know what it really means. For plants it is a bit less rewarding: Centaurea melitensis, Chamaerops humilis, Genista morisii, Hymenocarpos circinnatus, Juniperus phoenicea, Oenanthe globulosa, Orchis coriophora, Polygala sardoa, Sideritis romana and Tetragonolobus purpureus could be added to our list. In an agricultural field we found Allium ampeloprasum.

25 April 2009: Near the west coast of Sant' Antioco

Scared away by the maquis we drove on, being somewhere on Sant'Antioco without knowing exactly where. So somewhere we stopped the car again and started looking for plants. Here are some of the species we recorded: Ajuga iva, Arum pictum, Bryonia cretica subsp. dioica, Bupleurum baldense, Carthamus tinctorius, Dorycnium hirsutum, Dorycnium pentaphyllum, Evax asterisciflora, Herniaria hirsuta, Lathyrus nissolia, Neatostema apulum, Ononis ornithopodioides, Ophrys annae (see picture), Ophrys apifera, Ophrys sphegodes, Opopanax chironium and Succowia balearica.




26 April 2009: Porto Teulada (Google map)

Looking on Google Earth we were attracted by the deserted area of Capo Teulada. Unfortunately we couldn't figure out how to get there (we had a very simple rental car, not suitable for driving off-road) so we gave up our efforts to reach the Cape. Instead we drove to Porto Teulada. A nice place as well, as it turned out. We left our car near the coast and followed a path to the west. From there we had a beautiful view on the Capa Teulada that we didn't reach. Some of the species we recorded were Achyranthes sicula, Asplenium marinum, Callitriche stagnalis, Dactylis marina, Frankenia laevis, Lathyrus aphaca, Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum, Parentucellia latifolia, Paronychia echinulata, Scirpus setaceus and Tolpis altissima.



26 April 2009: West of Sarroch (hydro-dam under construction) (Google map)

From Porto Teulada we followed the road along the coast eastwards. Our map promised us some beautiful views, and there were indeed some magnificent sea-views from the narrow road. At Sarroch the road had transformed into a highway, so we followed a narrow road into the hills a bit westwards from Sarroch. The forest was damaged severely there by of the building of a large concrete structure (we believed it to become a hydro-dam). For plants it was a rather boring place. Do not visit it, unless you want to see Verbascum densiflorum.



26 April 2009: Salt lakes south of Cagliari (Google map)

Continuing the road we came south of Cagliari. Several very large salt lakes can be found here, full with Flamingos that can be approached really close (as long as you stay in your car). On the coast we found Atriplex halimus, Cerastium diffusum, Euphorbia maculata, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and Teesdalia coronopifolia.



26 April 2009: Swamp south of Assemini (Google map)

South of Assemini we found a little swamp next to a canal. We recorded only very common species here, like Alisma plantago-aquatica, Avena sativa subsp. macrantha, Centaurea napifolia, Coronopus squamatus and Smyrnium rotundifolium.



27 April 2009: Costa Verde / Dune di Piscinas (Google map)

Now we will give you some advise in case you really want to be impressed by the powers of nature: GO TO COSTA VERDE / DUNE DI PISCINAS !!!!!!!! I truly haven't seen anything so spectacular in my life before. Strong winds coming from the sea blow sand particles into the land, forming sand dunes with a height of several dozens of meters. It takes some time to get there by car but you will be rewarded for your efforts. And there are some really nice plants to be discovered as well: Anchusa crispa, Ephedra distachya, Jasione montana, Linaria simplex, Scrophularia ramosissima and Thymelaea tartonraira. Where the sandy dunes become less high (towards the beach) you can find species like Euphorbia paralias (see picture), Matthiola tricuspidata, Otanthus maritimus and Silene succulenta.


27 April 2009: Palude sa Masa (Gonnesa) (Google map)

In the evening we visited the surroundings of Gonnesa one more time. There was a pine forest between the road and the swamp "Palude sa Masa". In this forest we found Cutandia maritima, Halimium halimifolium and Scirpus maritimus. Quite exciting were thousands of swallows catching insects above the swamp. When it was almost to dark to see anything, bats joined in the hunting festivities as well. Fortunately we didn't look up to the sky all the times, because we would have missed Ophrys apifera (see picture) then.




28 April 2009: Surroundings of Nurri and Villanovulato (Google map - location not exact)

Another new day in our Botanical Journey. We had planned to spend half of our time on the west coast of the island and wanted to spend the second half of our Journey on the east coast. We rented a holiday home in the town of Santa Maria Navarrese so we had to cross the inlands of Sardinia. Our route brought us to Iglesias and from there to Guspini and San Luri. The owner of our accommodation in Gonnesa told us about "Nurrages", so we decided to visit a famous one north of San Luri, called "Su Nuraxi" (Google map). This archaeological site is listed on an UNESCO world heritage list, which means: thousands and thousands of tourists. Even on a rainy day in April there's just too many people on a location like that. Our advice: do not go there. There are millions of other nurrage's you can visit without someone else being there and you do not have to pay an entrance fee as well. South of Gonnesa and on the island Sant'Antioco we saw several nice nurages.


As you can imagine we left the UNESCO site as fast as possible, following the road east to Gergei. A little past that town, north of Nurri, we saw a location that looked quite interesting for wild plants. Our attention was drawn to large quantities of orchids that could be seen from the car. Before you read any further we have to give you a warning: any Orchid-lovers' heart will beat a lot faster after reading the following list of species. In an area of only a few square meters we recorded Cephalanthera longifolia, Orchis longicornu, Ophrys sphegodes subsp atrata, Ophrys vernixia (see picture), Ophrys bombyliflora, Orchis papilionacea, Aceras anthropophorum, Ophrys tenthredinifera aprilia, Ophrys lutea and Ophrys morisii. But not only orchids were present abundantly here. We also recorded Cyclamen repandum, Hypericum tomentosum, Oenanthe lisae, Potentilla crassinervia and Ranunculus sardous. This sure was a good place to stop the car!

28 April 2009: Surroundings of Villanovulata and Sadali (Barbagia)

(Google map - location not exact)

Only a few kilometres away from the previous stop we noticed a large specimen of Barlia robertiana alongside the road. There was a concrete construction where we parked our car to see if there would be some more interesting species to record. We saw Arabis collina, Carex microcarpa, Cynoglossum cheirifolium, Euphorbia characias, Ononis viscosa, Ophrys chestermanii, Ranunculus monspeliacus and Thymus herba-barona. Our attention was drawn to a very strange-looking orchid as well. It appeared to be a hybrid of Orchis papilionacea x longicornu (see picture), which is known from Sardinia, but we had not seen one before (this was actually the only time we have seen it in Sardinia at all).




28 April 2009: Foresta Mont' Arbu (Gennargentu) (Google map - location not exact)

We entered the national park Gennargentu by taking the narrow road from Sadali towards the Lago Alto Elumendosa. This area was very rich in wild flowers and we recommend any plant lover to go there. Especially during spring time it is a lovely place, that enables you to find species like Leucojum aestivum, Narcissus tazetta (see picture) and Helleborus lividus in HUGE quantities. We stopped at several locations. One of them was a recently chopped forest where we saw the large plants of Paeonia mascula. After a small search for other species we discovered Orchis mascula, Dactylorhiza insularis x maculata, Listera ovata and a lot of non-orchid species like Acinos arvensis, Alyssum alyssoides, Clypeola jonthlaspi, Cruciata laevipes, Cytinus hypocistis, Mentha insularis, Moenchia erecta, Montia fontana and Sanicula europaea.


29 April 2009: Surroundings of Talana (Google map)

The owner of our accommodation in Santa Maria Navarrese showed us our holiday home and after some minor issues that had to be straightened, I slept very well on the floor underneath a Schalke'04-blanket. The next day we decided to go to Talana. In a book we had read a description of a hike through the forests there. To be honest, we were a bit disappointed when we were there. It was quite a nice walk but the surroundings were not very spectacular. And the list of plant species neither! We did see some nice ferns like Asplenium onopteris and Athyrium filix-femina. A scorpion that came a bit too close scared the sh** out of me. We decided to leave the forests of Talana for what they were and go as high up in the mountains as we could (by car): the Mont Arbu (1,588m above sea level).



29 April 2009: Parco Naz. del Gennargentu (near Talana)

(Google map -location not exact)

On the way up to the Arcu Correbor we crossed a grassy field with lots of springtime flowers. Although it was freezing could and we did not have any warm clothes, we got out of the car. Due to the cold and barren climate only small flowers were to bee seen, but beautiful they were! For example: Crocus minimus, Cruciata pedemontana, Ornithogalum collinum (see picture), Romulea requienii, Scleranthus annuus and Veronica verna. We must be honest here and admit that is was far from easy to identify the correct species of Gagea, Romulea and Ornithogalum. We took many pictures of these specimens and back home we had to use a lot of books to find out the correct species names. But based on the pictures we were able to make a positive identification nevertheless (mostly thanks to Flora Europea).




29 April 2009: River valley in Parco Naz. del Gennargentu

(Google map)

Further along the road towards the Arcu Correbor, near Nuraghe Foppia, we passed a river valley. We parked our car and followed the river by foot for a while. We found Glechoma hirsuta and Scrophularia trifoliata (both endemics - the last one is on the picture to the right) between the rocks alongside the river. Also Euphorbia characias, Euphorbia amygdaloides, Mentha requienii and Lamium bifidum were found. And again there were some orchids, like Orchis mascula, Orchis lactea and Dactylorhiza insularis x maculata. We also found the hybrid Orchis lactea x papilionacea.


29 April 2009: Arcu Lorreboi (Google map)

The high mountain pass Arcu Lorreboi is very cold and windy, but definitely worth a visit for anyone who is looking for wild flowers. Personally I like Gagea very much and we found here Gagea foliosa, Gagea bohemica (see picture) and Gagea nevadensis. Also Armeria pungens and another very small Armeria were present. Juncus inflexus, Myosotis discolor, Ranunculus macrophyllus, Saxifraga bulbifera, Scrophularia umbrosa and Soleirolia soleirolii also inhabitants of this barren place too.



29 April 2009: Surroundings of Lotzorai (Google map)

On our way back to the holiday-home in Santa Maria Navarrese we stopped in the surroundings of Lotzorai to find a supermarket. In front of the supermarket we saw Oxalis corniculata and Oxalis stricta. Not species you would like to travel a long distance for, but new on our list. And we helped an old lady to bring some heavy bottles of water to her car, thus improving the image of Dutch tourists with local residents.



30 April 2009: Santa Maria Navarrese -> Punta Pedralonga (Google map with route)

The local Tourist Information Office of Santa Maria Navarrese provided us with a map of the area. Several walks were suggested on the map and because we wanted to see more of the sea we chose to walk from Santa Maria Navarrese Pedra Longa, north of the town. This proved to be a very spectacular walk with magnificent sea-views. The path started in dense maquis. It was rich in all kinds of Cistus so it was just a matter of time to find the parasite Cytinus hypocistis. The road continued over steep cliffs, ending at the sea. From Pedra Longa we took an unpaved road back towards Santa Maria Navarrese. We recorded Aegilops geniculata, Asphodelus chambeironii, Convolvulus cantabrica (see picture), Crucianella latifolia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Origanum heracleoticum, Ranunculus cymbalarifolius, Sedum villosum, Teucrium flavum, Teucrium subspinosum, Urginea maritima and Valerianella carinata here. When we were almost back in the village we found Neotinea maculata, a very ugly orchid with no decorative value whatsoever.

1 May 2009: Parco Naz. del Golfo di Orosei (Google map)

North of Santa Maria Navarrese you can find the Parco Nazionale del Golfo di Orosei. There was a pass called "Genna Serbene" at an altitude of 764 meters above sea level. Again very beautiful views on the landscape and also some new species to record. Just west of the highest part of the road was a small valley with a little stream. The ground was very wet, and made funny splashy noises when we walked over it. We found some marshy plants here like Myosotis pusilla, Cardamine flexuosa, Fraxinus ornus, Romulea requienii (see picture) and Ranunculus ophioglossifolius. On places less wet we found Ophrys panatensis, Centaurea ferulacea, Helichrysum stoechas, Legousia falcata, Urtica pilulifera and Senecio doria. We walked around about one hour before we met a large group of goats. That explained the barren and short vegetation.



1 May 2009: Virago south of Cala Gonone (Google map)

Time to get away from the goats. We drove all the way to Cala Gonone because we planned to go towards the Grotta del Bue Marino. There should be a "gorge" nearby with possibly some interesting vegetation. The place turned out to be a hot-spot for people who want to swim in the sea. Near the Grotta was a very small beach and too many Sardinian people tried to be there at the same time. We actually had some trouble to find a parking place for our car, but we finally managed to stop somewhere (if the German gentleman whose car was the closest to ours ever reads this: sorry if you tried to get out and our car was blocking you - thanks for being so patient). We followed the barred road towards the beach and descended the stairs. Instead of turning left towards the sea, we turned right, following the steep gorge. There were a lot of trees in it and some nice flowers as well, like Pancratium illyricum, Limonium sinuatum and Orlaya kochii. But to be honest, if you are looking for special plant species the gorge near the Grotta del Bue Marino might not be the best place to go.

Back in our holiday-home we started a conversation with the mother-of-the-house. She didn't speak English and we didn't speak Italian, but by showing her books and pictures we could explain what we were doing. The lady liked our hobby very much and gave us both a present: a hand-made cup with the picture of a plant and the text "profuma di Sardegna", which means "smells of Sardinia". It turned out that her daughter was the owner of a pottery in the village of Baunei. So we owe it to the kind lady of the house to tell everybody who visits Sardinia to go to the pottery in Baunei. Just do it.



2 May 2009: As Piscinas / Bašu GoloritzŔ (Google map)

According to local villagers "As piscinas" is THE place to go when you are plant-hunting. So we did go there. And we experienced that for plant-hunters it is NOT wise to go to "As piscinas" unless they like pigs. The piscinas were actually small ponds in the rocks, totally demolished by the cattle that was abundantly present: cows, horses, pigs, donkeys, etcetera. Due to the excrements of these animals the ponds were very rich in nutrients and it costed us a lot of hard work to find any interesting plants at all. Potamogeton berchtoldii and Ranunculus trichophyllus were probably the most spectacular. This is the sort of place you must leave as fast as possible. And so we did.



2 May 2009: Teletotes / Codula de Luna (Google map)

A little to the northeast of As Piscinas, still inside the National Park Golfo di Orosei, there was a river called "Codula de Luna". A narrow road went down a steep gorge. About halfway our attention was drawn by several plants of Pancratium illyricum. We stopped our car in a curve of the road and went to take a closer look. Big butterflies were flying around. Trying to take a picture of the butterflies proved to be a frustrating activity. We recommend you to walk up the hill into the woods (there is no path) so you can see lots of ferns like Asplenium ceterach and Selaginella denticulata. When you follow the road down, you will find that it ends at Teletotes. You can only follow the river downstream by foot. This really is a nice walk with lots of wild flowers to enjoy. For example Atropa bella-donna was nice to see (it reminded me a bit of the bellflowers on Tenerife), as was Aristolochia tyrrhena (see upper picture). Other nice species were Alkanna lutea (see lower picture), Helichrysum saxatile, Hypericum androsaemum and Linaria pelisseriana. Follow the river as long as you like; it keeps rewarding you with nice species. You have to follow the same road back to the car.

3 May 2009: Parco Naz. del Gennargentu (Google map - exact location uncertain)

The next morning we woke up because numerous bee-eaters were flying in front of the windows of our bedrooms. What a way to wake up! This promised to be good day (and so it was!).

Several trips had taken us to the sea and the coast of Sardinia. I insisted on going up high into the mountains because I like alpine flowers very much (take a look at our pages on the Swiss alps as well). So this is why we followed the road that, according to the map, was going all the way up to the highest point of the Parco Nazionale del Gennargentu: Punta la Marmota at 1,824 meter above sea level. We drove as far as we dared to with our rental car and stopped at an impressive height. We found several species that were new for Sardinia to us, but also several species we had seen before, like Trifolium subterraneum, Saxifraga bulbifera, Tuberaria guttata, Saxifraga corsica, Ornithogalum collinum, Romulea ligustica, Gagea foliosa and Salvia verbenaca.


On the way down we stopped near a river that we crossed by taking off our shoes. On the other side of the river there were a lot of typical water plants that were new to our list, like Alyssum minus, Berula erecta, Carex elata, Carex ovalis, Hypochoeris glabra, Hypochoeris robertia and Potamogeton natans. Especially nice to see were Aristolochia rotunda (see picture) and Soleirolia soleirolii.



3 May 2009: Near the railroad south of Arzana (Google map)

After this successful visit to the higher regions of the Gennargentu we drove back towards the town of Lanusei. Somewhere south of Arzana we were forced to stop by a group of thousand sheep that had to cross the road and the railroad. We had already seen a swamp next to the road and decided to look for plants there for a while. This was truly a spectacular place! On the wet soil there were lots of Narcissus tazetta and also Carex caryophyllea, Ranunculus arvensis, Ranunculus revelieri and Silene behen. Again there were two kinds of Romulea: Romulea ligustica (see picture) and Romulea columnae.


3 May 2009: Fallow fields in the surroundings of Lanusei and TortolÝ (Google map)

We continued our route. On the S198, about halfway between Lanusei and Tortoli, we checked some fallow fields for plant species and added several common species to our list.

3 May 2009: Surroundings of Arbatax (Google map)

Arbatax is a small village with a very big harbour. In the harbour we checked some fallow fields but this did hardly give us any new species. Next we went to the beach and there we found Anthemis maritima, Portulaca oleracea and Cyperus capitatus. We decided to eat something in the village of Arbatax and on a wall we saw a giant specimen of Hyoscyamus albus (see picture for a detail of this plant). On the same wall we found Cymbalaria aequitriloba subsp. aequitriloba.



4 May 2009: The end of our Botanical Journey

The next day we had to go back to Cagliari airport. This turned out to be quite a challenge because who would expect a traffic jam on Sardinia? We didn't and by the time we got to the airport the passengers had already boarded the airplaine. We ran in and the door of the plain was closed just behind us. During our stay in Sardinia we recorded 816 different plant species. The full species list is below.



Full list of recorded plant Species Sardegna 2009:



Only the first finding of species is displayed. So species that were recorded, let's say, both on the 24th and the 25th of April ONLY are noted on the 24th.


22-4-2009: Cagliari airport
Anagallis arvensis
Arundo donax
Asparagus acutifolius
Aster squamatus
Avena barbata
Bellardia trixago
Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris
Borago officinalis
Briza maxima
Bromus madritensis
Bromus rubens
Cerinthe major
Chrysanthemum coronarium
Cirsium arvense
Convolvulus althaeoides
Convolvulus arvensis
Cynodon dactylon
Cynoglossum creticum
Daucus carota
Desmazeria rigida
Diplotaxis erucoides
Dittrichia viscosa
Echium italicum
Echium parviflorum
Echium plantagineum
Erodium moschatum
Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa
Euphorbia peplus
Ficus carica
Foeniculum vulgare
Fumaria capreolata
Galactites tomentosa
Galium aparine
Hedysarum coronarium
Hirschfeldia incana
Hordeum murinum
Lagurus ovatus
Lavatera cretica
Lophochloa cristata
Lotus edulis
Lotus ornithopodioides
Malva nicaeensis
Melilotus sulcata
Oxalis pes-caprae
Pallenis spinosa
Papaver hybridum
Parietaria judaica
Phragmites australis
Piptatherum miliaceum
Plantago lagopus
Polycarpon tetraphyllum
Psoralea bituminosa
Rapistrum rugosum
Reseda alba
Scorpiurus muricatus
Sherardia arvensis
Silene vulgaris
Silybum marianum
Sisymbrium orientale
Sonchus tenerrimus
Trifolium resupinatum
Trifolium squarrosum
Trifolium stellatum
Vicia sativa subsp. sativa


23-4-2009: Around Palude sa Masa near Gonnesa
Acacia pycnantha
Aceras anthropophorum
Agave americana
Aira caryophyllea
Allium roseum
Allium subhirsutum
Allium triquetrum
Anthemis arvensis
Apium nodiflorum
Arisarum vulgare
Artemisia arborescens
Arum italicum
Asphodelus aestivus
Asterolinon linum-stellatum
Barlia robertiana
Bellis annua
Biserrula pelecinus
Blackstonia perfoliata
Blysmus compressus
Bromus hordeaceus
Calendula arvensis
Calicotome villosa
Calystegia sepium
Capsella bursa-pastoris
Carduus pycnocephalus
Carex distans
Carex divulsa
Carex otrubae
Carpobrotus acinaciformis
Centaurea calcitrapa
Centaurea sphaerocephala
Centranthus calcitrapae
Cerastium glomeratum
Cirsium vulgare
Cistus albidus
Cistus monspeliensis
Cistus salvifolius
Clematis flammula
Coleostephus myconis
Convolvulus siculus
Crepis leontodontoides
Cynara cardunculus
Cynosurus elegans
Cyperus laevigatus
Daucus carota subsp. maximus
Desmazeria marina
Dipsacus ferox
Ecballium elaterium
Epilobium hirsutum
Equisetum ramosissimum
Erodium ciconium
Erodium malacoides
Eryngium campestre
Euphorbia dendroides
Euphorbia exigua
Euphorbia helioscopia
Euphorbia terracina
Ferula communis
Filago pyramidata
Galium murale
Geranium dissectum
Geranium purpureum
Geranium pusillum
Geranium rotundifolium
Hordeum marinum
Juncus acutus
Juncus bufonius
Juncus effusus
Lamarckia aurea
Lathyrus annuus
Lathyrus articulatus
Lathyrus ochrus
Lavandula stoechas
Lavatera arborea
Linum tenuifolium
Linum trigynum
Lobularia maritima
Lolium perenne
Lonicera implexa
Lotus angustissimus
Lotus conimbricensis
Marrubium vulgare
Medicago arabica
Medicago rugosa
Medicago tornata
Melica ciliata
Mentha aquatica
Mentha suaveolens
Mercurialis annua
Misopates orontium
Muscari comosum
Nasturtium officinale
Nerium oleander
Ononis mitissima
Ophrys sphegodes subsp. atrata
Opuntia maxima
Opuntia tuna
Orobanche minor
Orobanche ramosa
Papaver somniferum
Parentucellia viscosa
Petrorhagia nanteuilii
Phagnalon saxatile
Phalaris aquatica
Phalaris minor
Pistacia lentiscus
Pisum sativum
Plantago afra
Plantago coronopus
Plantago major
Poa annua
Poa trivialis
Polypodium vulgare
Populus alba
Prasium majus
Ptilostemon casabonae
Ranunculus muricatus
Ranunculus paludosus
Reseda luteola
Ricinus communis
Rosmarinus officinalis
Rubia peregrina
Rubus ulmifolius
Rumex bucephalophorus
Rumex crispus
Rumex thyrsoides
Sagina apetala
Scirpus holoschoenus
Scolymus hispanicus
Sedum album
Sedum caeruleum
Sedum stellatum
Selaginella denticulata
Senecio vulgaris
Serapias cordigera
Serapias parviflora
Silene alba subsp. divaricata
Silene gallica
Sisymbrium officinale
Smilax aspera
Smyrnium olusatrum
Sonchus asper
Stellaria media
Stellaria neglecta
Tamarix africana
Theligonum cynocrambe
Torilis nodosa
Trifolium angustifolium
Trifolium arvense
Trifolium cherleri
Trifolium glomeratum
Trifolium nigrescens
Trifolium repens
Tuberaria lignosa
Typha latifolia
Ulmus canescens
Umbilicus horizontalis
Urospermum dalechampii
Urtica atrovirens
Valerianella dentata
Verbascum creticum
Verbena officinalis
Veronica anagallis-aquatica
Vicia hybrida
Vicia tetrasperma
Vicia villosa
Vitis vinifera
Vulpia fasciculata


23-4-2009: Coast near Piaggia Mesu (Gonnesa)
Asparagus stipularis
Cakile maritima
Calystegia soldanella
Crithmum maritimum
Crucianella maritima
Eryngium maritimum
Lavatera maritima
Malcolmia ramosissima
Medicago littoralis
Medicago marina
Ononis natrix
Otanthus maritimus
Pancratium maritimum
Parapholis incurva
Pinus pinea
Senecio leucanthemifolius
Silene colorata
Silene nodulosa
Silene sericea
Silene succulenta
Spergularia macrorhiza
Spergularia media
Valantia muralis


24-4-2009: Grotta di San Giovanni (northwest of Domusnˇvas)
Acanthus spinulosus
Alnus cordata
Anemone hortensis
Anogramma leptophylla
Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. praepropera
Aphanes floribunda
Arabis verna
Arenaria serpyllifolia
Asparagus aphyllus
Asplenium adiantum-nigrum
Asplenium ceterach
Asplenium trichomanes
Bellis perennis
Bellis sylvestris
Bellium bellidioides
Biscutella didyma
Brachypodium distachyon
Brachypodium sylvaticum
Campanula erinus
Cardamine hirsuta
Carex oedipostyla
Cephalanthera longifolia
Clinopodium vulgare
Colchicum neapolitanum
Coronilla scorpioides
Crataegus monogyna
Crepis vesicaria
Cruciata glabra
Cyclamen repandrum
Cynosurus echinatus
Daphne laureola
Dianthus caryophyllus
Dryopteris tyrrhena
Epipactis helleborine
Erophila verna
Evax pygmaea
Galium rotundifolium
Geranium columbinum
Gynandriris sisyrinchium
Hedera helix
Hippocrepis unisiliquosa
Hypericum perfoliatum
Hypochoeris achyrophorus
Hypochoeris cretensis
Inula conyza
Lamium bifidum
Lamium garganicum
Lathyrus angulatus
Limodorum abortivum
Luzula italica
Medicago minima
Medicago orbicularis
Melica minuta
Melilotus italica
Minuartia hybrida
Moehringia trinervia
Neotinea maculata
Nigella arvensis
Oenanthe crocata
Onopordum illyricum
Ophrys arachnitiformis = O. morisii
Ophrys chestermanii
Ophrys speculum = vernixia = ciliata
Ophrys tenthredinifera
Orchis longicornu
Orchis papilionacea
Papaver dubium
Peucedanum ostrutium
Phagnalon rupestre
Pistacia terebinthus
Poa bulbosa
Polypodium interjectum
Populus nigra
Quercus ilex
Ranunculus bullatus
Ranunculus parviflorus
Ranunculus umbellatus
Rhagadiolus stellatus
Romulea columnae
Ruscus aculeatus
Salvia verbenaca
Saxifraga corsica
Saxifraga tridactylites
Scandix australis
Scrophularia oblongifolia = Scrophularia rivularis
Scrophularia peregrina
Sedum dasyphyllum
Senecio siculus, first wrongly identified for S. squalidus
Serapias lingua
Stellaria pallida
Tamus communis
Tordylium apulum
Torilis arvensis
Trifolium spumosum
Trifolium subterraneum
Trifolium tomentosum
Tuberaria guttata
Urtica pilulifera
Verbascum sinuatum
Veronica arvensis
Veronica cymbalaria
Vulpia myuros


25-4-2009: Salt lakes south of Sant' Antioco
Anacyclus clavatus
Andryala integrifolia
Asparagus maritimus
Asphodelus ramosus
Astragalus hamosus
Atriplex hastata
Atriplex prostrata
Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima
Carex extensa
Centaurium maritimum
Crassula tillaea
Cynoglossum officinale
Cynomorium coccineum
Erodium cicutarium
Euphorbia pithyusa
Filago congesta
Gladiolus illyricus
Glaucium flavum
Halimione portulacoides
Halocnemum strobilaceum
Helichrysum frigidum
Helichrysum italicum
Inula helenium
Juncus maritimus
Juncus striatus
Lactuca viminea
Limonium strictissimum
Matthiola tricuspidata
Melilotus messanensis
Nicotiana glauca
Ophrys fusca
Plantago maritima
Polygonum maritimum
Ruppia cirrhosa
Ruppia maritima
Salicornia Sect. europaea group
Salsola soda
Scolymus grandiflorus
Scorpiurus vermiculatus
Sedum litoreum
Spergularia marina
Suaeda maritima
Suaeda vera
Triglochin bulbosa
Zostera marina


25-4-2009: Border of maquis in the southwest of Sant' Antioco
Centaurea melitensis
Chamaerops humilis
Genista morisii
Hymenocarpos circinnatus
Juniperus phoenicea
Oenanthe globulosa
Orchis coriophora
Polygala sardoa
Sideritis romana
Tetragonolobus purpureus


25-4-2009: Near the westcoast of Sant' Antioco
Ajuga iva
Allium neapolitanum
Anthyllis tetraphylla
Arum pictum
Astragalus epiglottis?
Briza minor
Bryonia cretica subsp. dioica
Bupleurum baldense
Carex flacca
Carthamus tinctorius
Chenopodium murale
Dorycnium hirsutum
Dorycnium pentaphyllum
Erica terminalis
Erodium laciniatum
Evax asterisciflora
Filago vulgaris
Fumana thymifolia
Fumaria officinalis
Herniaria hirsuta
Hippocrepis ciliata
Lathyrus nissolia
Malva parviflora
Myosotis arvensis
Neatostema apulum
Ononis ornithopodioides
Ophrys annae
Ophrys apifera
Ophrys sphegodes
Opopanax chironium
Orobanche gracilis
Papaver pinnatifidum
Ruta chalepensis
Succowia balearica
Vicia lutea


25-4-2009: Locations alongside the road
Smyrnium perfoliatum
Althaea hirsuta
Aristolochia navicularis
Nigella damascena
Stachys glutinosa
Vicia bithynica


26-4-2009: Porto Teulada
Achyranthes sicula
Asplenium marinum
Callitriche stagnalis
Crupina crupinastrum
Dactylis marina
Frankenia laevis
Juncus pygmaeus
Lathyrus aphaca
Linaria micrantha
Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum
Parentucellia latifolia
Paronychia echinulata
Plantago bellardii
Polypogon monspeliensis
Scirpus setaceus
Tolpis altissima
Trifolium scabrum


26-4-2009: West of Sarroch (hydro-dam under construction)
Conyza bonariensis
Lactuca serriola
Rumex scutatus
Senecio lividus
Trifolium incarnatum subsp. molinerii
Verbascum densiflorum


26-4-2009: Salt lakes south of Cagliari
Atriplex halimus
Cerastium diffusum
Euphorbia maculata
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum
Teesdalia coronopifolia


26-4-2009: Swamp south of Assemini
Alisma plantago-aquatica
Avena sativa subsp. macrantha
Centaurea napifolia
Coronopus squamatus
Cotula coronopifolia
Festuca arundinacea
Lemna minor
Smyrnium rotundifolium


26-4-2009: Locations alongside the road
Lythrum hyssopifolia
Medicago dolita
Mentha pulegium
Papaver rhoeas
Picris echioides
Ranunculus trilobus
Sedum rupestre


27-4-2009: Costa Verde / Dune di Piscinas
Ailanthus altissima
Alnus glutinosa
Anchusa crispa
Cytisus villosus
Elymus farctus
Ephedra distachya
Euphorbia paralias
Jasione montana
Juniperus oxycedrus
Linaria simplex
Lupinus micranthus
Micromeria graeca
Osyris alba
Polycarpon tetraphyllum subsp. diphyllum
Rhamnus alaternus
Rhamnus lycioides
Scrophularia ramosissima
Thymelaea tartonraira


27-4-2009: Palude sa Masa (Gonnesa)
Cutandia maritima
Halimium halimifolium
Scirpus maritimus


27-4-2009: Locations alongside the road
Anthoxanthum gracile
Pteridium aquilinum
Pyrus amygdaliformis
Ranunculus ficaria
Sambucus nigra


28-4-2009: Surroundings of Nurri and Villanovulato
Cyclamen repandum
Hypericum tomentosum
Oenanthe lisae
Ophrys bombyliflora
Ophrys lutea
Potentilla crassinervia
Potentilla recta
Prunella vulgaris
Ranunculus sardous
Rumex acetosella
Sanguisorba minor
Schoenus nigricans


28-4-2009: Surroundings of Villanovulata and Sadali (Barbagia)
Arabis collina
Carex microcarpa
Cerastium pumilum
Cynoglossum cheirifolium
Erodium acaule
Euphorbia characias
Geranium lucidum
Helianthemum salicifolium
Juncus articulatus
Juniperus communis
Ononis viscosa
Ranunculus monspeliacus
Santolina chamaecyparissus
Thymus herba-barona


28-4-2009: Foresta Mont' Arbu (Gennargentu)
Acinos arvensis
Allium guttatum
Alyssum alyssoides
Buglossoides arvensis
Clypeola jonthlaspi
Corylus avellana
Cruciata laevipes
Cystopteris fragilis
Cytinus hypocistis
Dactylorhiza insularis x maculata
Erica arborea
Genista corsica
Helianthemum nummularium
Helleborus lividus
Leucojum aestivum
Listera ovata
Medicago lupulina
Mentha insularis
Moenchia erecta
Montia fontana
Narcissus tazetta
Orchis mascula
Paeonia mascula
Pinus pinaster
Sanicula europaea
Sesleria insularis
Spergula arvensis
Viola odorata


28-4-2009: En route (exact location not recorded)
Celtis australis
Emex spinosa
Malva sylvestris
Ophrys fusca subsp. Iricolor = O. lupercallis
Ophrys lunulata


29-4-2009: Surroundings of Talana
Achillea ligustica
Allium trifoliatum
Antirrhinum majus
Arabidopsis thaliana
Arabis rosea
Arbutus unedo
Arctium pubens
Asplenium onopteris
Athyrium filix-femina
Barbarea rupicola
Carex pendula
Digitalis purpurea
Draba muralis
Gagea bohemica
Genista ephedroides
Geranium molle
Hyoseris radiata
Lamium amplexicaule
Lapsana communis
Medicago murex
Mycelis muralis
Myosotis ramosissima
Papaver argemone
Polystichum setiferum
Stachys arvensis
Stachys corsica
Urtica dioica
Urtica urens
Verbascum phlomoides
Vicia cracca
Vicia hirsuta
Vicia lathyroides


29-4-2009: Parco Naz. del Gennargentu (near Talana)
Crocus minimus
Cruciata pedemontana
Hypochoeris radicata
Luzula campestris
Ornithogalum collinum
Romulea requienii
Scleranthus annuus
Veronica verna


29-4-2009: River valley in Parco Naz. del Gennargentu
Calamintha nepeta
Cymbalaria pilosa
Euphorbia amygdaloides
Glechoma hirsuta
Lythrum portula
Mentha requienii
Mercurialis corsica
Minuartia geniculata
Prunus spinosa
Ranunculus ficaria subsp. ficariiformis
Sagina procumbens
Sagina saginoides
Scrophularia trifoliata
Sedum rubens
Veronica hederifolia
Vincetoxicum hirundinaria
Viola riviniana


29-4-2009: Arcu Lorreboi
Allium vineale
Armeria pungens
Armeria spec (klein)
Bunias erucago
Calepina irregularis
Capsella rubella
Cerastium ligusticum
Cystopteris dickieana
Gagea foliosa
Gagea nevadensis
Glyceria fluitans
Hypericum tetrapterum
Juncus inflexus
Myosotis discolor
Orchis lactea
Ranunculus macrophyllus
Saxifraga bulbifera
Scrophularia umbrosa
Soleirolia soleirolii


29-4-2009: Surroundings of Lotzorai
Lupinus albus
Oxalis corniculata
Oxalis stricta
Viburnum tinus


30-4-2009: Santa Maria Navarrese -> Punta Pedralonga
Aegilops geniculata
Asphodelus chambeironii
Asplenium balearicum
Brassica nigra
Ceratonia siliqua
Colutea arborescens
Conium maculatum
Convolvulus cantabrica
Crucianella latifolia
Diplotaxis tenuifolia
Galium setaceum
Lantana camara
Lepidium graminifolium
Linum bienne
Medicago trunculata
Myrtus communis
Origanum heracleoticum
Orobanche crenata
Oryzodes spec.
Ranunculus cymbalarifolius
Robinia pseudacacia
Rumex pulcher
Sedum villosum
Sorghum halepense
Teucrium flavum
Teucrium subspinosum
Urginea maritima
Valerianella carinata
Verbascum rotundifolium
Vicia narbonensis


1-5-2009: Parco Naz. del Golfo di Orosei
Alopecurus rendlei
Brassica insularis
Cardamine flexuosa
Centaurea ferulacea
Clematis vitalba
Euphorbia spinosa
Fraxinus ornus
Helichrysum stoechas
Hypericum perforatum
Lactuca longidentata
Lactuca saligna
Legousia falcata
Ophrys panatensis
Ranunculus ophioglossifolius
Senecio doria
Seseli bocconi
Myosotis pusilla


1-5-2009: Virago south of Cala Gonone
Anagyris foetida
Cistus incanus
Galium album
Limonium sinuatum
Malus domestica
Orlaya kochii
Pancratium illyricum
Polypodium cambricum
Ruta angustifolia


1-5-2009: Alongside the road
Rumex crispus


2-5-2009: As Piscinas / Bašu GoloritzŔ
Adonis annua
Carex demissa
Potamogeton berchtoldii
Ranunculus trichophyllus


2-5-2009: Teletotes / Codula de Luna
Alkanna lutea
Atropa bella-donna
Chenopodium album
Epilobium lanceolatum
Fallopia convolvulus
Helichrysum saxatile
Hypericum androsaemum
Linaria pelisseriana
Saponaria officinalis
Aristolochia tyrrhena


3-5-2009: Parco Naz. del Gennargentu
Alyssum minus
Aristolochia rotunda
Berula erecta
Bromus tectorum
Bunium alpinum
Carex elata
Carex ovalis
Corrigiola litoralis
Eleocharis palustris
Epilobium tetragonum
Equisetum arvense
Hieracium praealtum
Holosteum umbellatum
Hypochoeris glabra
Hypochoeris robertia
Iris pseudacorus
Leontodon tuberosus
Lycopus europaeus
Micropyrum tenellum
Myosotis sicula
Myriophyllum spicatum
Ornithopus compressus
Osmunda regalis
Petrorhagia saxifraga
Plantago lanceolata
Plantago subulata
Potamogeton natans
Sagina pilifera
Scleranthus perennis
Sparganium erectum
Viola canina


3-5-2009: Near the railroad south of Arzana
Carex caryophyllea
Chrysanthemum segetum
Datura stramonium
Galium palustre
Lathyrus pratensis
Oenanthe fistulosa
Ranunculus arvensis
Ranunculus revelieri
Romulea ligustica
Silene behen
Xanthium spinosum
Xanthium strumarium


3-5-2009: Fallow fields in the surroundings of Lanusei and Tortolý
Aira elegantissima
Artemisia vulgaris
Chelidonium majus
Chenopodium album subsp. album
Dasypyrum villosum
Herniaria latifolia
Lathyrus heterophyllus
Lolium rigidum
Melissa officinalis
Mentha x piperita
Phytolacca americana
Polygonum hydropiper
Polygonum lapathifolium
Potentilla recta
Rumex obtusifolius
Salix fragilis
Sambucus ebulus
Verbascum pulverulentum
Veronica persica
Vitex agnus-castus


3-5-2009: Surroundings of Arbatax
Anthemis maritima
Centranthus ruber
Cymbalaria aequitriloba subsp. aequitriloba
Cymbalaria spec.
Cyperus capitatus
Daucus muricatus
Digitaria sanguinalis
Hyoscyamus albus
Lythrum tribracteatum
Ononis variegata
Polypogon viridis
Portulaca oleracea
Salix x rubens
Solanum luteum


3-5-2009: Alongside the road
Castanea sativa
Hieracium Subgen. murorum group
Neottia nidus-avis
Quercus pubescens
Raphanus raphanistrum
Spartium junceum